C-section or Vaginal birth, differences in bacteria

by Dr. Alan Kadish NMD

Not surprisingly nature provides our newborns with multiple distinct groups of bacteria, (microbiome) regardless of their haveing being born vaginally or via C-section, after 6 weeks. This study of 81 youngsters, at the Texas Children’s Hospital, documents that the contents of the mouth, skin, and gut are distinctly different and ….. it’s regardless of delivery method. This is significantly different than what is now consider an issue with a c-section delivery where people have adapted to the seeding method to their babies.

Working with multiple generations for over 30 years and now seeing the literature support, it’s not unusual to find that the parents are equally involved in the transfer of their bacteria and the environmental impact. Think of the bacteria as being similar to your bakery. They have known for decades that, as an example, sourdough is different when made in a different facility….it’s the bacteria found in the air that makes the unique characteristics of their products. 

And to amplify the environmental aspect of our moving with our/your bacterial cloud, you might find this Science publication fascinating. What did they do ? The researchers took swabs of the interior of our homes and guess what…..they found that you bring your bacteria with you even when you move and it’s unique to the family. So are we a reflection of our environment or are you the maker of the environment ? Since this clearly affect your health we need to learn more about our environments.

There is another publication, in the Journal of Translational Immunology, that has shown that the microbiome of heavier people is different and can be potentially interpreted as “infectious” when you are in direct contact with these folks. Should that determine who you associate with or is this not an issue ? This mention is only to open the conversation and continue to evaluate the science and maximize your and your families health.

This is still a very evolving science as the real question that might make for a better outcome of your baby is should you be exposed to the hospital environment and the nasty bacteria commonly found there vs. you own home. Clearly, this is not a simple issue as each birth is unique. Perhaps bringing in your own linens and other products from you home, might be a way to bridge the bacterial gap ? Sounds like some additional personalization for your babies introduction to the world is in order.

I encourage you to weigh the evidence and consider the easy ways you and your baby can colonize with the “right” groups of bacteria and maximaze their health.

Want to know more, curious what you can do to make your environment safer and healthier  ?

Call us at the Center of Health and let’s discuss your best options to maximize your families health. 541.773.3191

 

 

NATURE MEDICINE | ARTICLE

Maturation of the infant microbiome community structure and function across multiple body sites and in relation to mode of delivery

Derrick M Chu, Jun Ma, Amanda L Prince, Kathleen M Antony, Maxim D Seferovic & Kjersti M Aagaard

Nature Medicine (2017) doi:10.1038/nm.4272
Received 22 August 2016 Accepted 19 December 2016 Published online 23 January 2017

Abstract• Accession codes• References• Author information• Supplementary information
Human microbial communities are characterized by their taxonomic, metagenomic and metabolic diversity, which varies by distinct body sites and influences human physiology. However, when and how microbial communities within each body niche acquire unique taxonomical and functional signatures in early life remains underexplored. We thus sought to determine the taxonomic composition and potential metabolic function of the neonatal and early infant microbiota across multiple body sites and assess the effect of the mode of delivery and its potential confounders or modifiers. A cohort of pregnant women in their early third trimester (n = 81) were prospectively enrolled for longitudinal sampling through 6 weeks after delivery, and a second matched cross-sectional cohort (n = 81) was additionally recruited for sampling once at the time of delivery. Samples across multiple body sites, including stool, oral gingiva, nares, skin and vagina were collected for each maternal–infant dyad. Whole-genome shotgun sequencing and sequencing analysis of the gene encoding the 16S rRNA were performed to interrogate the composition and function of the neonatal and maternal microbiota. We found that the neonatal microbiota and its associated functional pathways were relatively homogeneous across all body sites at delivery, with the notable exception of the neonatal meconium. However, by 6 weeks after delivery, the infant microbiota structure and function had substantially expanded and diversified, with the body site serving as the primary determinant of the composition of the bacterial community and its functional capacity. Although minor variations in the neonatal (immediately at birth) microbiota community structure were associated with the cesarean mode of delivery in some body sites (oral gingiva, nares and skin; R2 = 0.038), this was not true for neonatal stool (meconium; Mann–Whitney P > 0.05), and there was no observable difference in community function regardless of delivery mode. For infants at 6 weeks of age, the microbiota structure and function had expanded and diversified with demonstrable body site specificity (P < 0.001, R2 = 0.189) but without discernable differences in community structure or function between infants delivered vaginally or by cesarean surgery (P = 0.057, R2 = 0.007). We conclude that within the first 6 weeks of life, the infant microbiota undergoes substantial reorganization, which is primarily driven by body site and not by mode of delivery.

Intestinal microbiota and faecal transplantation as treatment modality for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus

Authors

The prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2 is increasing rapidly around the globe. Recent insights have generated an entirely new perspective that the intestinal microbiota may play a significant role in the development of these metabolic disorders. Alterations in the intestinal microbiota composition promote systemic inflammation that is a hallmark of obesity and subsequent insulin resistance. Thus, it is important to understand the reciprocal relationship between intestinal microbiota composition and metabolic health in order to eventually prevent disease progression. In this respect, faecal transplantation studies have implicated that butyrate-producing intestinal bacteria are crucial in this process and be considered as key players in regulating diverse signalling cascades associated with human glucose and lipid metabolism.

Introduction
The recent epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in western societies have challenged researchers to investigate the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms
[1]. Although genetic factors and lifestyle contribute significantly to the susceptibility of these metabolic disorders, the role of intestinal microbiota as potential partaker in the development of obesity and subsequent insulin resistance has only recently gained momentum [2]. Trillions of bacteria are present in the human gastrointestinal tract containing at least 1 × 1014 bacteria made up of from 2000 to 4000 different species of (an)aerobic bacteria. Among these indigenous bacterial populations (major phyla: Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria), commensal anaerobic species also are thought to have a significant influence in host structure and function. In adults, the commensal microbial communities are relatively stable, but can undergo dynamic changes as a result of its interactions with diet, genotype/epigenetic composition and immunometabolic function. Moreover, differences in intestinal microbiota composition in the distal gastrointestinal tract appear to distinguish lean versus obese individuals, suggesting that intestinal dysbiosis contributes to the development of obesity and its consequences [3, 4]. In line with this, Cani et al. demonstrated that a lower abundance of Gram-positive, short chain fatty acid butyrate-producing anaerobic bacteria was associated with endotoxaemia, chronic inflammation and development of insulin resistance in mice [5]. However, the question remains as to whether these changes in intestinal microbiota composition are the cause or consequence of human obesity.In this respect, faecal bacteriotherapy or faecal transplantation has been proved to be a highly effective and successful treatment for patients with several diseases [6]. The hypothesis behind the faecal bacteriotherapy rests on the concept of bacterial interference, in which pathogenic microbes are replaced by beneficial communities. We subsequently used this faecal transplantation model in a randomized control trial to test whether gut microbiota are related causally with human metabolism. Male insulin-resistant subjects with metabolic syndrome received solutions of stool from lean donors, and a significant improvement in peripheral insulin resistance was observed in conjunction with altered (small) intestinal microbiota composition [7]. These include an increase in short chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate-producing intestinal bacteria, including Roseburia and Faecalibacteriumspp. in faeces as well as small intestinal Eubacterium halli. Thus, it is tempting to speculate that intestinal bacteria are indeed causally involved in human metabolism. In this review, we aim to discuss current knowledge of intestinal (butyrate-producing) microbiota composition in obesity as well as the use of faecal transplantation using different donors to mine for beneficial intestinal bacterial strains to treat obesity and subsequent type 2 diabetes mellitus.